The Sound and Sites of Drawing and Walking Unit 3 CP Paper

 Evans Jill,  Unit 3  CP  Final Paper
Distant England - Jill Evans 2013 (cover)
Day 1. Walking and listening                                       
Day 2. Voiding the distance 
Day 3. Walking elsewhere                                                                       
Day 4. A place

In the following words I shall tell the story of walking in Snowdonia over a four day stay in Capel Curig. I set off with clear intentions to experience walking in this remote landscape with the possibility of a diversion into somewhere unknown or a chance occurrence. As I move through this terrain I will look, listen, notice, respond, connect and explore the impact of walking, drawing and memory. I will examine how drawing might enquire and communicate the little differences I find that could reveal a link to specific place.
As I travel along this path I will be discussing my reasoning and purpose in more detail through a gradual expansion into a wider culture to return with knowledge of elsewhere.
Soren Kierkegaard goes for a wander at the optimum pedestrian pace of three miles per hour he considers this to be the speed the mind functions well at.
But unlike Kierkegaard being ‘so overwhelmed with ideas he could scarcely walk’1
I hope to bring this story back to the individual reader.
Day 1
Looking up towards the distant mountain ridge, the long steep path rises northwards at right angles from Telford’s A5. We climb the first style and walk until traffic sounds diminish before turning on the Zoom microphone.
Swish, swish, swish of trouser sounds; amplified through the headphones.
Initially I try an awkward, legs apart strut to quieten the swish but eventually have to accept it as part of the whole experience and find it interesting as it intensifies the rhythm of walking. My trouser legs are creating a perfect auditory example of Marcel Duchamp’s ‘infra thin’. A moment of discrete differences he defines in Notes;
Velvet trousers-/ their whistling sound (in walking)/ by/ brushing of the two legs is an/ infra thin separation signalled by/ sound. (It is not? An infra thin sound)2
Marcel Duchamp is discussing the interval that separates two things as a moment of difference; an immeasurable gap that distinguishes one from the other. I notice these moments of similarity and difference, they are an element of observation and a tool for drawing.
Walking and listening through headphones, alters my experience of the landscape that surrounds me. I have become absorbed in the act of walking, each step building a changing rhythm, recording the physical topography as I pass through it while at the same time listening intently: wanting to find out how sound might explain distance.
Up towards lake - Phil Evans 2013
Pause - Drawing One
The far off ridge continuously disappears and reappears as we walk towards it.
My focus shifts; switching from listening to seeing. Into the mist the path continues to rise, the ridge is hidden and the structure of hills and distance is hard to define, the steep incline becomes more physical, more demanding. By focusing on the rhythm of walking I hadn't noticed how quickly I gained height. The remote mountain ridge now dominates. I try to respond with quick drawings of the ever changing mists that cover and uncover the varied contours ahead. I recognise J.M.W. Turner’s problems and how he used the advantages of a misty effect to accentuate distance in his work. Confusing altering and denying form he developed his idea with and in the mist, giving it a structure, he did not merely describe the spaces beneath.
Snowstorm JMW Turner 1842 - Jill Evans pencil on paper 2012 
I add and remove the distance in front of me.
A glimmer of sun occasionally highlights the ridge, shining through the mist, applying a religious glow. I recall our first walk here sitting on the ridge above fearful of moving on in any direction. Go right, a short climb up the sheer stepped cliff edge, go left, onto an initially awkward but less terrifying rock climb, walking 8 miles further round in the cold and wet. Or return back the way we came up; only now going down the almost impossible scramble.
What was that? Suddenly ducking: an exceptionally deep unnatural sound filled the sky and surrounding landscape. Looking up two ravens are circling above our heads, their calls echoing unnaturally loudly around the valleys beneath us.
Now it is quiet; sounds are distant; I walk to the edge of the lake and draw ripples emerging from the mist.
My footsteps change, squelching across bog, clinking up shale, slowing up slippery rocks, clothing rustling as wind increases, grey drawings.
The landscape surrounds me, looking down I draw the lake.
Mountain influences going deep into my mind.3
Hamish Fulton walks, it is his art; the encounter of walking, ‘if I do not walk, I cannot make a work of art, ‘it’s about connection, where rhythm of the walk meets the land’. 4 He speaks quietly on non-art issues with Haiku-like economy.
But how can a viewer access his work? A photograph does little to explain Fulton’s direct contact ‘with’ or experience of a place, his receptiveness to nature ‘blending mindbody with land’.5
David Reason, quoted in Walking Journey writes that the ‘radical openness’ of ‘the non-dominating experience of nature’, Fulton’s subject matter; ‘eludes representation as such’.6
Rock, Fall, Echo, Dust Hamish Fulton - Walking Journey
Hamish Fulton chooses words for his graphic wall pieces, words with minimal interference on the reflection of his walk, precise words that allow the viewer a vast space for their own recollection.
The wind is stronger as the path narrows and roughens; loose stones rattle downhill when disturbed and high above Lugwy ridge is silent.
I draw, looking back down into the distance across the A5. A dull mist descends as I eat lunch, it’s pointless to continue, the ravens are elsewhere.
The long walk back now faces Tryfan, loose shale is slippery but progress quickens down the steep slope, I stop briefly to listen to the skylarks in the mist above and draw the view towards Capel Curig.
It was raining so heavily last time I came down this slope, I felt as if my legs were moving independently, going so rapidly I just sat above and got carried back down to the traffic sounds by ‘a pair of patient sublunary legs’.7
Sitting resting my legs I quietly think:
With clear head and strength returning aching muscles at peace with myself. The usual internal dialogue ceases. Thoughts come in slowly - slow enough to notice that they are irrelevant silly thoughts that evaporate with recognition. There is for a time a widening gap between one thought and the next… I am now acutely aware of all and everything around me and I make all the connections… but the heightened state remains a good memory, a reference point as to where I could and should be.8
Day 2
Walking up Moel Siabod the track changes frequently: tarmac, gravel, grit, rock, stone and now slate; probably a waterfall in the winter. Each surface has a unique sound with a rhythm that disrupts and disintegrates over the difficult terrain.
The landscape is closer here, the path rises and changes direction to negotiate steep rocky outcrops; it turns and opens into an abandoned slate quarry. We stop next to the clear turquoise, deep cut pool, below the slate cliffs, two walkers pass on their way back down, and ask ‘what are you recording’? I explain and we discuss the history of the quarry; slate as a commodity and walking. He says:
 You should visit Parys Mountain, I grew up on Anglesey and visited it often as a child, the colours   are amazing.
Continuing on up, my mind drifts to a recent Radio 3 broadcast on Psychogeography and into a discussion on how our sense of identity is formed from knowledge and memory of places we encounter. Iain Sinclair suggests with the glamour of travel now waning, search for adventure in your own landscape, find unexpected and unknown vistas with a bit of Parisian Situationist fun. Use a map of one place to find your way round another, enter no entry signs or try to experience landscape in a different way.9

We hear a raven call close by, one is just appearing over the mountain above us, another joins it and they start to circle, are they attracted by the home made black fluffy cover of the Zoom mic I hold up high? Another arrives calling for its mate, the sound amplifies and their circling becomes more threatening. Number three is holding off waiting for its mate who suddenly appears from over the ridge behind us, just as number three comes in for the attack, I hear the rush of air through their huge wings, claws grab, feathers fly as they tumble and twist again and again directly in front of us. Amazing as it is I want them to stop. At last there is a victor and the pairs fly slowly off in opposite directions.
I breathe
And we realise, being so enthralled by the spectacle we forgot to use the camera. A camera would have separated us from the actual moment; the visceral, aural, visual experience is retained better as memory. A photograph cannot accurately represent what is felt and seen, it will always be a past moment in which ‘the photograph exerts its recording power and becomes seen either as a view of path taken or as a view from the path’.10
J.M.W. Turner adjusts landscape to relate his experience of walking there. He multiplies mountain ranges to heighten drama, alters scale, blurs outline, removes trees, emptying the space to emphasise vastness and evoke the real atmosphere of place, initially displaying poetry next to his painting to stir the viewer’s emotions.11

Dolbadern Castle JMW Turner, 1800 - exhibited with poem at Royal Academy 2013

Observing the world, sunsets, science and progress he notices visual effects, the after image of a train rushing past or how blurring the horizon enlarges space. Understanding how we perceive he subtly applies rules of interior perspective to explain distance in the landscape, ‘To enable the spectator to see through the picture into space’.12

The Alps at Daybreak JMW Turner 1832/Turners Vignettes
Walking on, around and up Moel Siabod I look towards the distant English landscape and begin to notice how the horizon line spreads and grows as we climb, widening in space and depth, the curved layers multiply.
Drawings 11/12
I start removing marks to widen space in the drawing. I look, examining the landscape for essential information and quickly discard all that isn’t vital, the marks rapidly simplify as the distance expands. It is becoming a process of emptying.
I found an interesting little book by J.R. Hillier in my local charity shop; he co-incidentally lived close by, he collected and studied Japanese drawings.
Skipping through to look at the sketchy landscapes I notice there is rarely any suggestion of horizon, the minimal recording of backgrounds, undefined spaces and mists cause a lack of fixity to the figures and villages.
Vast space and absent horizons, mass, waves, wind and motion are all simply suggestions of line or smudge. Hillier explains that emotion is not overtly expressed in the drawing but ‘found in the eye of the beholder’.13 The natural elements confidently described in both concrete and abstract terms are perceived and immediately interpreted by the viewer. I recognise Haiku14 rhythms within these images; five houses, seven trees, three boats, essential poetic detail is emphasised; structure links the elements in a rhythmic pulse and creates balance across the paper surface.

Isle of the Blest Ogata Korin, ink and colour on paper British Museum

Village at the Edge of The Sea Suzuki Nanrei 1830, ink and colour on paper J.R. Hillier
Further on up, the gradual change of height continues to adjust and alter the horizon, spreading layer upon layer of distant hills in an almost continuous movement.
Kiefer recognises the importance of this observation as a young man:
For this line is in reality no line, but rather movement, because there, where we see the line, the waves rule also, and the sea is as much in motion there as here. Alone the endless distance transforms the movement into line.15
An ambiguity of horizon alters and flattens the pictorial space. W.H. Hudson comes across these conditions when a ‘soft bluish, silvery haze’ cause ‘sea, sky and land to blend and infuse,’ 16 destabilising thought and senses into an illusion of transition. Landscape in 18th century Japanese drawing was not topographical, the brush strokes, ink and wash of these odd scenes never become illustrative. Josiah Condor wrote in 1911 ‘realistic treatment was considered destructive of the primary object of art which was to adorn a surface without destroying the idea of a surface and converting it into an illusion of space’.17
Landscape with Angler Tani Buncho ink on paper 1840 British Museum 
Eating lunch, we gaze out across the remote open landscape that stretched across to England and watch a group of young men pick their way across the bog in the distance.
I hear a loud thud, turning I see Phil lying silently, face down, on a rock below. Panicking I scan around, nobody, no phone signal and too far from anywhere to get help. He begins to move as I climb down the rocks.
He had slipped ‘arse over tip’ and landed nose first on a boulder. I feel very alone; no one has passed by for some time now.
A significantly red nose, cut knee and broken Zoom mic, otherwise good to go.
Walking now in damp socks; unable to find the pathway through the bog, we start the ascent to the top of Moel Siabod. Is this the right way? Another hour of walking, a short climb, we are no closer, a lot further around and have a far longer walk back; no one has passed for several hours since Phil’s fall.
The fear of being lost brings back other memories of being lost, right back to childhood when it is a very real experience.
Wilderness: During the Wimbledon seminar on Witnessing the Wilderness;18 the speakers agree, getting lost as a child is an intense, physical and emotional event and the true experience of wilderness:
The concept of wilderness is a construction anyway, as soon as someone is there witnessing it, it is no longer a wilderness.19
It can no longer exist if you are in it; you intrude and are denied it experientially.
But being somewhere unknown, lost and alone brings the wilderness closer.
It was about 3am walking back from the loo, flicks of white disappearing in all directions are picked out in the torch light. I am camped among the daisies (and Rabbits) just passed the warning sign that reads ‘You are entering a remote area ...20
Walking briskly along the track and gazing up at the stars, more stars than I have ever seen before. I scan around for the tent, there’s nothing there, not one anywhere. I must have taken the wrong path, how long have I been walking, I see no sign of anything remotely civilized, I stand alone in my pj’s in the middle of the wilderness.
At Witnessing the Wilderness the discussion moves on to the specifics of distant places each being accessed differently by the artists in this exhibition. The hand-out reads:
The exhibition interrogates our preconceptions of the wilderness, and the role of the artist as adventurer, witness and mediator. 21 
It is also a product of culture and a commodity; almost all can be witnessed remotely, as Philip Rawson stated ‘a wild landscape sells tweeds’.22
Artist James Ireland exhibits a cultivated wilderness in the form of three instant waterfalls, the type you can find in any warehouse any size that suits your needs. He surfs the internet for couples shared images of romantic sunsets, presenting them on a digital picture frame entitled Mountain Sunset 2013. His images elucidate perfectly how the idea of romance is something constructed from a personal environment and their shared cultural experiences.
Sunset Morte Hoe Devon – Phil Evans 2012
Interested in how your body reacts to place Deep Topographer Nick Papadimitriou 23 walks for a purpose. He attempts to destabilise some of the more familiar areas in the outskirts of London. Looking for an alternative description he links memory and history to landscape. Ideas of a dark side; seldom noticed contours; an object, drain, concrete post or granite kerbstone of unknown origin all question what you know of a place and how you engage with it.
Getting lost quickly alters the experience of a place, expanding it beyond anything than can be seen visually. There is always the possibility of meeting dangerous people.
A derive: The exiled French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau is out walking alone in amongst the deep wooded valleys on the northern slopes of Leith Hill when he encounters Mr Malthus of the Rookery, Westcott. Fearful of spies he flees in terror, believing that Mr Malthus, a local curate, was an ‘emissary of the Government’.24
He was staying at Mr Spence’s cottage near the bottom of Leith Hill, naming him in his diary:
July 23, 1759. To the "Hatch" to dinner, Mr. Evelyn, Mr. Godschal, Mr. Bridges, Mr. Steere, Mr. Spence, Mr. Courtenay and Mr. Walsh.25
I’m particularly attached to this story as I live and walk in nearby Westcott; Rousseau later explains how perception is less than exact in Emile, published in 1762:
Whenever one finds oneself in unknown places at night where we cannot judge of distance, and where we cannot recognise objects by their shape on account of the darkness, we are in constant danger of forming mistaken judgements as to the objects which present themselves to our notice’. He questions if this is why we see ‘spectres or gigantic and terrible forms’? A great tree at a distance could just be a bush close up or visa-versa.26
Then as soon as we perceive these forms they will suddenly shrink and assume their real size:
but if we run away or are afraid to approach, we shall certainly form no other idea of the thing than the image formed in the eye.27
Rousseau considers that through walking, looking, feeling, counting and measuring the dimension of things we learn to judge and understand sight and distance, he takes with him a little paper book and a pencil:
These different objects offered me subjects of meditation for my walks; for, as I believed I had already observed, I am unable to reflect when I am not walking: the moment I stop, I think no more, and as soon as I am again in motion my head resumes its workings.28
Day 3
Instructions for a derive:
In a derive one or more persons during a certain period drops their relations, their work and leisure activities and all their other usual motives for movement and action, and lets themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there.29
In response to yesterday’s chance encounter we go in search of Parys Mountain, on the way we stop at Penrhyn a 19th century fantasy Castle built from profits of Welsh slate and Jamaican sugar. Its foreboding appearance screams keep out and inside the horrors of ego and wealth cover its walls, pillars, ceilings, collections and furniture. We have coffee and continue on to Anglesey. Looking for Parys Mountain and without a map, we drive all the way around the island until Bull Bay captures our attention.
Wind at Bull Bay - Jill Evans 2013
The north wind is so fierce here, it’s as if the whole world is blowing directly into this tiny bay. (Checking the map later it really does, funnelled straight down the Irish Sea.) Ironically its welsh name Porth Llechog, means sheltered bay and is the most northerly village in Wales.
On top of Parys Mountain we cannot stand upright but decide to take the trail through the copper mines anyway. The wind violently directs our route around this moonscape of pink, orange, purple, ochre, and grey embellished soils; colours caused by minerals such as copper, lead and sulphur:
Once one of the Sublime spectacles of late 18th and early 19th centuries industrial Wales, much visited by travellers and artists in search of the contemporary aesthetic notions of the Beautiful, the Picturesque or the Sublime.30
 Parys Mountain - Jill Evans 2013
The walking artist or writer forms a deep connection to landscape; this learnt aesthetic usually develops from early experiences of their local environment.
A walking stick is an object that conveys a sense of the future; it is the reason Joseph Beuys uses its image to link heaven, earth, spirit and matter. Beuys explains his reasoning for the drawings in The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland to his friend and companion Caroline Tisdall, who along with James Joyce is also partly the ‘secret person’.31
These drawings are his thinking process, they are his questions and thoughts, an evolution of thinking forms developed through making drawings that had no perfect formula to explain them. They exist as a question and are ‘closer to reality’32 than a depiction of energy or element, they are his search for an alternative language.
 Energy Plan Joseph Beuys 1945 Collection Museum Schloss
He believes that man’s relationship to matter will always endow it with significance; and he draws the significance giving it a visual form that might include myth and knowledge with elements of water, mountain, ice, crystal, heat, mineral and animal.
James Joyce gathers tiny fragments of experience that have a greater importance, he labels them ‘epiphanies’ ‘those moments when, to the artist’s ‘spiritual eye’, some entity, an object or situation, seems to become irradiated by intense significance.’ It leaves behind its imprint.33
 Joyce expands these ‘epiphanies’ into long detailed visual descriptions, examining each word while paying attention to a deep flow of thought in his interior monologues. He speaks a treasured phrase softly to himsel
A day of dappled seaborne clouds.34
He continues:
The phrase and the day and the scene harmonised in a chord.

The importance of that moment, its ‘associations of legend and colour’, the visual, visceral experience is returned to him through the perfect phrase that does more than purely describe but becomes a moment of perfection itself.
Joyce recalls an insignificant moment and transforms the experience of it for the reader, placing them elsewhere in their own reverie, until gradually:
Consciousness of place came ebbing back to him slowly over a vast tract of time.35
National Gallery
I am searching for distance in the National Gallery and its role in early landscapes. I find it supporting the figures until Filippino Lippi in 1480 allows it a serious role by placing small figures within the scene and lining up the main characters across the front in Adoration of the Kings.
The Adoration of the Kings - Filippino lippi 1480 National Gallery - Jill Evans pencil on paper 2013
Figures and landscape almost balance in The Conversion of St Hubert from the Workshop of the Life of the Virgin, 1485 where a high horizon enables the distant path to wind through remote wilderness and woodland into an Arcadian hunting scene. In 1506 Giorgione relegates figures to a minor role, lowering the horizon line until Landscape at Dusk expands into the distance.

Left: The Conversion of St Hubert Workshop of the Life of the Virgin 1480 National Gallery -
Jill Evans pencil on paper 2013

Above: Landscape at Dusk Giorgioni 1506 National Gallery - Jill Evans pencil on paper 2013

I enjoy the quiet coolness in Room 20. Claude Lorraine creates calm scenes of pastoral poetry, after the day’s work is finished and activity is re-gathering or closing down. A late evening glow emerges in the distance as if internally from the back of painting and shines towards the viewer where soft rhythmic trees describe a gentle breeze. Simon Schama writes in Landscape and Memory that the designed wilderness of Claude as reflected in a Capability Brown landscape, is ‘unapologetic artificiality’36 with its purely pastoral ‘birdsong, wild honey and moonlight’.37
The wilderness is preserved in the sacred grove and stone lions.
Mondrian the psychogeographer
Drawing as an observer Piet Mondrian was looking for a way to let go or move beyond how the world appeared but needed to retain his way of understanding what he saw around him. He rejected cubism’s ‘desiccated abstraction’ implying it was a superficial arrangement of pattern and shape devoid of vitality; he turned to abstract thinking, ‘Impressed by the vastness of nature, I was trying to express its expansion, rest and unity’.38
Theosophy’s intuitive principle matched his personal observations, ‘The immediate apprehension by the mind without reasoning, the receiving of knowledge by direct perception’ but was Mondrian actually a psychogeographer?
Mondrian relates to the whole experience of observing sea, sky and stars when out walking, accessing more than the purely visual, he sees his surroundings in a different way, as it exists through matter. Through psychogeography he might have avoided Madame Blavatsky’s Spiritual preoccupations.39
The intuitive form should emerge from nothing.40
Kazimir Malevich abandoned reference to outside world and looked elsewhere into art itself to find a new Suprematism. To explain his reasoning Malevich presented a strongly worded booklet - From Cubism and Futurism to Suprematism: The New Realism in Painting along with his new work.
Insulting the dull and impotent artists, stuck in the corners of nature he writes:
I have transformed myself in the zero of form and dragged myself out of the rubbish filled pool of Academic art.
I have destroyed the ring of the horizon and escaped from the circle of things, from the horizon-ring which confines the artist and the forms of nature.41
Observing how the Futurists are excited by new technology; motivated by the whirring of propellers they paint the dynamics of movement. He considered the fragmented and repeated objects violated the wholeness of things. The Futurists related these fractioned images to subconscious intuition but Malevich questions this intuition and believes it is actually a form of ‘utilitarian reason’ to be employed consciously and decisively by the artist.
His new abstract paintings are free from the necessity of expressing whole objects and so scale becomes arbitrary, it is material mass that remains important as he searches for truth not sincerity.

Day 4
Where are you? The caller enquires, my answer locates us to them, our being elsewhere contains no associations but where we are indicates what we are doing and how free we are to speak; our situation.
Where am I? Asking myself this, internally questions my focus.
John Berger explains this question is not about place but ‘what kind of world, what kind of set-up (agencement)’ we are in; it protects our imagination from the accidental or hazardous surprise:
Any drawn place is both a here and an elsewhere. There is nothing else like these places; they are to be found only in drawings.42
A drawing made at the moment of being ‘here’ in this place, contains information about itself and its own particularity ‘the moments of choice have been kept visible’43 but also retain a sense of those rejected and lead elsewhere. The here in the drawing is a place of necessity that contains the freedom of elsewhere.
Drawings 13-16
I am sitting on a large rock below Tryfan. My eyes follow the route up along the A5 to Ogwen valley. I first indicate a few small clusters of pine trees then focus on the sparse and dramatic mountains where the road disappears.
I notice how each tiny remote cottage has a few pine trees outside.
Later I sit inside The Ugly House drinking a cup of tea and read the guide book, amongst the many tales of its origins author Rob Collister explains its history:
Jean Jacques Rousseau initiated the Romantics movement’ he ‘inspired a taste for wild landscapes with gloomy chasms, sounding cataracts and lofty precipices.44
Ty Hyll or The Ugly House was built as a picturesque touch to enhance the wilderness on Telford’s new London to Holyhead road, now the A5.
Rousseau's pupil and the designer of Ermenonville garden, M Giridin speaks of the peaceful life at Ermenonville:
Jean-Jacques used to rise, ‘he tells us,’ with the sun, and spend the whole day in roving through the woods and meadows in search of herbs. In the evenings he would take a row with his friends on the lake, himself plying an oar, so that the children used to call him their 'Sweet-water Admiral'. Sometimes the party would sit in some shady spot by the riverside listening to the strains of the clarionette.45
We follow the sign down a narrow winding road, driving endlessly along a remote wooded valley and stop in the middle of nowhere.
Drawing 17, the last page
Half way down, the steps disappear off into the distance, the sides are steeply wooded, motivated by the way the path drops suddenly ahead, I draw quickly.
Stepping inside the guide greets us enthusiastically, ‘Welcome to Ty Mawr’.
A remote cottage that once stood on the main drovers’ road, three pine trees were planted outside as a symbol of welcome rest and a meal for the drovers.
Ty Mawr, Morgan’s Cottage - Phil Evans 2013 
This very day; 24.5.2013 the owners, (National Trust) had successfully made a bid for one of the last remaining original welsh bibles translated by William Morgan. William Morgan, born here in 1545 was a ‘linguistic treasure’ responsible for establishing the correct usage of standardised Welsh.
Back home I read:
The journeys told here take their bearings from the distant past but also from the debris and phenomena of the present for this is often a double insistence of old landscapes: ‘they can be read in the then but felt in the now’.46
Today’s expanding cultural connections expose and confuse ways of viewing and understanding reality with its multiplying beliefs; creating contradictions that now allow a commonality of ‘undecideability’.47
Anselm Kiefer’s paintings reflect on the left over debris from past and present. Matthew Biro explains how his ‘undecidable’ works of art’48 allow ‘contradictory readings about morally charged subjects’. A viewer is faced with many conflicting interpretations where meaning remains open or undefinable and its ‘undecideability’ is potentially shared by many.

Spiritual Heroes Anselm Kiefer. oil and charcoal on burlap 1973
In Germany’s Spiritual Heroes-1973, Kiefer intentionally directs the viewer towards the centre with a single-point perspective but each individual now questions their own position, to observe this huge empty wooden space as might the easel painter, identifying themselves inside the illusion or to remain outside as observer:49
Identification and illusionism are constantly produced, broken down, and reconstituted – a process that both generates ambiguity and promotes a self-reflexive phenomenological attitude in the mind of the viewer.50
 Where am I?
I am sitting on a park bench in Ealing and switch on Janet Cardiff’s narrative. Instantly I am connected to her reality, she is sitting on a park bench in Central Park, New York describing children on bikes passing by. Children cycle past at exactly the same moment here in London. I listen, she continues the descriptions but my mind wanders as a cat has just approached and a small group gather round to stroke it. A choir is practising: she explains ‘I am very bad at linear working; I use an open ended narrative, skipping from one thing to another’. I listen, as she passes through the streets of New York and begins to distinguish memory from perception. ‘In pure memory the temporal sequence of events is shattered’. I agree but start to lose interest and realise that listening to the narrative is displacing me from being here, now. Police sirens pass in the distance, was it here, or there in Central Park? 
Janet Cardiff would like to ‘move a whole room like a time machine from London to New York’. I think she just moved a park.51
I Look at Bruce Nauman’s drawing and read the title Six Inches of My Knee Extended to Six Feet; ah, the moment of movement instantly registers but it is my own knee I see retreating before me, taking me to another place.52

 Bruce Nauman Six Inches of My Knee Extended to Six Feet. Pencil and tape on paper 1967
Nauman questions how art generally adds information to a situation and if by removing information causing sensory dislocation can it also be art? He relates basic materials such as sound, light and movement to the site of the work where a viewer provides the sensory poetry, involuntarily bringing in their own personal experiences.
Phil enters room, his knees hurt, he is fixing the bathroom floorboards.
I was lost inside Mike Nelson’s ‘The Coral Reef’ at Tate Britain.53 Searching for the way back I find more rooms I don’t recognise there are no signs that might help my disorientation. It’s so quiet now, where has everyone gone? I wish I was with someone in here... I wonder what would happen if I had a panic attack... have I ever had a real one... how would I react if... with this thought I start to feel very scared. I have no idea how I would react if I lost control.
The fear of being lost in there transformed my experience of an art exhibition but it is at that moment of being lost that the artwork becomes complete.
That moment of being lost is the work, as in process art, it is the time of process and not the residue of activity that is the art.
The process and temporality of drawing is analysed in Afterimage, Cornelia Butler explains how an unfinished drawing contains ambiguity of time, both the time exposed through its making, its duration and measure of pastness and its possibility of futurity. It is the process of making that both dictates and informs the drawing but its reality is elsewhere in the mind of the observer, the here now of the drawing and its making is an observed image that leads a viewer elsewhere.
By its nature drawing is a process of abstraction, the line or mark is an invention, distanced from what it represents, it contains both form and matter but this difference is almost indistinguishable.
Unmonumental sculpture appears as if from nowhere, objects propped, unfolded or slumped without status are ready to be quickly disassemble and moved on. Their instability is awkward do they dissolve into the world of nomad or fortify their own borders?

Anna Barriball Untitled II 2008 ink on paper
Silently lurking in the corner Anna Barriball’s Untitled II 54 is no longer a drawing, the density, crease and crumple move it beyond its making as it occupies and influences a viewer’s response each different in their perception.
We have journeyed together through mist and wind, and variations of a place. Walked across remote areas and into the distance, touched on wilderness and encountered hazards, inadvertently absorbing a multitude of experiences.
Our engagement connects drifts and alters with our focus, continuously evolving through the global complexity of experiences we encounter. I am in agreement with Walter Benjamin, ‘everything is connected but there is no single vantage point’.55
The landscape informs our growth and we know who we are by the ‘topographies of self we carry within us’.56 Drawing is the evidence of these connections; their transitory marks relate to a viewer’s own instinct and reasoning and takes them to a place elsewhere.
But the drawing also contains its own authority and returns a viewer to the moment of the drawing; to this place here, where it is now.


BBC Two. The Genius of J.W. Turner. Watched 29.4.13 Revolution - Industry/technology
Bachelard, Gaston. (1958) The Poetics Of Space. Edition 1994. Boston Massachusetts: Beacon Press. Foreword by John R. Stilgoe.

Benjamin, Walter. (1936) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Edition 2008. England:  Penguin Books
Berger, John. (2005) Berger on Drawing. Ireland: Occasional Press

Biro, Mathew. (1998) Anselm Kiefer and the Philosophy of Martin Heidegger. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press
Bois, Yve-Alain and Joosten, Joop. (1994) Piet Mondrian. New York: Bulfinch Press 

Bragg, Melvin. (2012) In our Time - The Druids. London: BBC Radio 4 20.9.2012
Butler, Cornelia H. (1999) Afterimage: drawing through process. Museum of Contemporary Art. The Mitt Press: Massachusetts

Cardiff, Janet and Miller, Georges Bures. (2005) Janet Cardiff - The Walk Book and CD. Walther Konig
Cascella, Daniela and Voegelin, Salome. (2013) on resonance FM 104.4

Cascella, Daniela  listened 5.7.13 oral story telling 
Cascella, Daniela listened 5.7.13

Causey, Andrew. (1973) Paul Nash’s Photographs Document and Image. London: Tate Gallery
Causey, Andrew, and Eates, Margot. (1975) Paul Nash. London: Tate Gallery

Christopher green, Barnaby Wright, The Courtauld Gallery. (2012)
Exhibition 16 Feb-20th May 2012. London. Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel. Yves-Alain Bois

Cozens, Alexander. Radical methods: Alexander Cozens. Plate 2, ‘Blot’ Landscapes for A New Method of Assisting the Invention in Drawing Original Compositions of Landscape 1785 viewed 12.7.13
Collister, Rob. (2005) Ty Hyll, The Ugly House, guidebook. Wales: Snowdonia Society

Coppel, Stephen. (2002) Imaging Ulysses, Richard Hamilton. London: The British Council
 Rose, Bernice and White, Michelle and Garrels, Gary. (2011) Richard Serra Drawing a Retrospective (Menil Collection). New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Foster, Hal. (Editor) (2000) Richard Serra, October Files. London: MIT Press
Deakin, Roger. (2008) Wildwood, A Journey Through Trees. London: Penguin Books.

Deleuze, Gilles (1993) The Fold Leibniz and the Baroque. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Derive.  viewed 8.7.2013

Evans, Jill. (1993) BA Thesis - Minimal Differences. London: Chelsea College of Art
Flood, Richard. Hoptman, Laura. (Author), Gioni , Unmonumental, The Object in the 21st Century. Phaidon

Franglen, Nick. July 2013 'Hive' Latitude festival. England: The Wellcome Trust
Girardin. Landscape designer - created first French landscape garden at Ermendville p.270 English-Pleasure-Gardens 28.7.13

Green, Christopher, and Wright, Barnaby. (2012) Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel. London: Courtauld Gallery

Grieve, Alastair. (1992) Robert Adams 1917-1984 A Sculptor’s Record. London: Tate Gallery   
Hatje, Verlag Gerd. (1998) The Magic of Trees. Germany: Hatje Cantz

Hamilton, Sue. (2006) Phenomenology in Practice: Towards a Methodology for a ‘Subjective’ Approach. London: University College
Hayward Gallery (1998) Bruce Nauwman. London: Hayward Gallery

Hillier, J.R. (1965) Drawings of the Masters, Japanese Drawings from the 17th through the 19th Century. New York: Shorewood Publishers Inc

Johnson, Una E. (1965) 20th Century Drawings from 1940 to the Present Day.
London: Shorewood Publishers

Joyce, James. (1922) This edition (2010) Ulysses. Hartfordshire Wordsworth Editions Ltd
Joyce, James. (1992 edition) Portrait of the Artist as a young Man. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd

Keiller, Patrick. (2012) The Possibility of Life’s Survival on the Planet.
London: Tate Publishing. The Robinson Institute@Tate Britain
Keats, John.  7.7.2013 

Koepplin, Dietier. (1988) Joseph Beuys. The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. Germany: Schirmer Mosel
Lewison, Jeremy. (1982) Circle: Constructive art in Britain 1934-40. Exhibition Catalogue. Cambridge: Kettle’s Yard Gallery
Kouvaras, Linda. (2013) Loading the Silence ebook viewed 26.6.13. Farnham: Ashgate

Lovatt, Anna. (2012) Drawing Sculpture. London: Drawing Room
Lowenstein, Tom. (Editor) (2007) Classic Haiku, The rules of Haiku. London: Duncan Baird Publishers

Macfarlane, Robert. (2012) The Old Ways, A Journey on Foot. London: Penguin
Malevich, Kazimir. Exhibition booklet Geometrical Abstract Art/Cubism and Abstract Art MOMA Exhibition viewed 12.02.2013 viewed 2012 and again 14.7.13

Mall Galleries. (2013) Memory & Imagination, Dutch Italianate and Contemporary Landscapes. London: Mall Galleries
Meridith, George.
History of "The Woods of Westermain" viewed 25/02/2013

Milner, John, 1992. Mondrian. New York: Phaidon Press Ltd.
Morley, L. Collison. (1973) Companion into Surrey, An Historical and Literary Guide Buckinghamshire: Methuen & Co Ltd. This Edition Spurbooks Ltd

Nelson, Mike. (2010) The Coral Reef. Tate Britain leaflet. London: Tate Publishing
Neve, Christopher. (1990) Unquiet Landscape, Places and Ideas in 20th Century English Painting. London: Faber and Faber

Nicholson, Geoff. (2011) The Lost Art of Walking, The History, Science, Philosophy, Literature, Theory and Practice of Pedestrianism. Essex, UK: Harbour Books Ltd
Pallasmaa, Juhani. (2005) The Eyes of the Skin Architecture and the Senses. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Pascale, Mark. (2011) Contemporary drawings from The Irving Stenn J R. Collection. Chicago Illinois: The Art Institute of Chicago
Piggott, Jan. (1993) Turner’s Vignettes. Tate Gallery, Millbank, London: Tate Britain

Radio 3, Friday 30th Nov 2012. Agricolous Piers Hellawell, classic music written from looking at David Smith paintings modular structures/units and line. Commissioned by Robert Plane 2008 Ulster orchestra
Radio 3 (2013) Walking with Attitude. Repeated Radio 4. 8.57am. Psychogeography viewed 25.6.13

Rae, Fiona. Maybe you can live on the Moon in the Next Century- Towner, April 27- June 23 2013 viewed 12.7.13

Rand, Richard. (2006) Claude Lorrain, The Painter as Draftsman, Drawings from the British Museum. New Haven and London: Yale University Press
Rawson, Philip. (1969) Drawing the appreciation of the Arts. London: Oxford University Press

Rose, Bernice and White, Michelle and Garrels, Gary. (2011) Richard Serra Drawing a Retrospective (Menil Collection). New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Royal Academy of Arts catalogue, Constable Gainsborough Turner and the Making of Landscape. London: RA

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Confessions 9. viewed 7.7.13 The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Confessions of J. J. Rousseau, Complete. Book ix Jean Jacques Rousseau

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Project Gutenberg EBook of Emile 1762 viewed 7.7.2013
Searle, Adrian, Sound Drawing. viewed 27.6.13

Sharma, Simon. (1995) Landscape and memory, Landscape as a work of the mind. New York: Vintage Books
Sheng, Hao. (2011) Fresh Ink, Ten Takes of Chinese Tradition.  Boston: MFA Publications

Solnit, Rebecca. (2002) Wanderlust. London: Verso
Keiller, Patrick. (2012) Patrick Keiller The Possibility of Life’s Survival on the Planet. London: Tate Publishing.

Tempkin, Ann and Rose, Bernice. (1993) The Drawings of Joseph Beuys, Thinking Is Form. New York: Thames and Hudson
Theosophy and De Stijl 25.6.13

Thornbury, Walter. (1970) The life and Correspondence of JMW Turner. London: Ward Lock Reprints
Thoreau, Henry David (2012-05-12). Walking. Kindle Edition.

Time team, Walking the Jurassic coast. More4 viewed 14.12.12
Tuan, Yi-Fi, (1977) Space and Place. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press

Tucker, Marcia. (Editor Bidaine, Philippe.) (1998) Bruce Nauman at the Hayward gallery. Hayward Gallery: London
Tufnell, Ben and Wilson, Andrew. (2002) Hamish Fulton Walking Journey. London: Tate Publishing

Flood, Richard and Hoptman, Laura.  Gioni, Massimiliano. (2007)  Unmonumental, The Object in the 21st Century. London: Phaidon Press Ltd
Voegelin, Salomé. (2010) Listening to Noise and Silence: toward a philosophy of sound art. London: Continuum International Publishing

Watkins, Jonathan and Martin, Sarah. (Editors) (2012) Hamish Fulton, Walking in Relation to Everything. Birmingham: Ikon Gallery and Turner Contemporary
Weilacher, Udo (1996) Between Landscape Architecture and Land Art. Switzerland: Birkhauser

Withers, Rachel. A Storyteller’s Map: Six Signposts (after Benjamin) found on Melanie Jackson visited 10.7.2013
James Ireland, Ian Brown, Geirant Evans, Simon, Dan Heyes (2013) Witnessing the Wilderness Seminar, Wimbledon Space

 List of illustrations
Distant England - Jill Evans 2013 (cover)

Up towards lake - Phil Evans 2013
Snowstorm/JMW Turner 1842 - Jill Evans pencil on paper 2012Dolbadern Castle JMW Turner, 1800 exhibited with poem at Royal Academy 2013

Rock, Fall, Echo, Dust Hamish Fulton - Walking Journey p.72
Parys Mountain - Jill Evans 2013

Village at the Edge of The Sea Suzuki Nanrei 1830, ink and colour on paper/J.R. Hillier Drawings of the Masters, Japanese Drawings from the 17th through the 19th Century.
Isle of the Blest Ogata Korin, ink and colour on paper British Museum/ Drawings of the Masters, Japanese Drawings from the 17th through the 19th Century

Landscape with Angler Tani Buncho, ink on paper 1840 British Museum/ Drawings of the Masters, Japanese Drawings from the 17th through the19thCentury.
The Alps at Daybreak JMW Turner 1832, Turners Vignettes p.75

Wind at Bull Bay - Jill Evans 2013
The Adoration of the Kings Filippino Loippi 1480 National Gallery - Jill Evans pencil on paper 2013

The Conversion of St Hubert Workshop of the Life of the Virgin 1480 National Gallery - Jill Evans pencil on paper 2013
Landscape at Dusk Giorgioni 1506 National Gallery - Jill Evans pencil on paper 2013

Ty Mawr, Morgan’s Cottage - Phil Evans 2013
Spiritual Heroes Anselm Kiefer. oil and charcoal on burlap 1973 Anselm Kiefer and the Philosophy of Martin Heidegger p.34

Bruce Nauman Six Inches of My Knee Extended to Six Feet. Pencil and tape on paper 1967 Afterimage p.83
Anna Barriball Untitled II 2008 ink on paper Drawing Sculpture p.4

Energy Plan Joseph Beuys 1945 Collection Museum Schloss Mayland © Joseph Beuys Estate/VG Bild-Kunst, found on

 Exhibitions visited
Barbican The Bride and the Bachelors. Duchamp with Cage, Cunningham, Rauschenberg and Johns. 2013 exhibit work that disturbs and redefines the distinctions between art and life in an eclectic mix of sculpture, painting, dance and sound.

Claude Lorraine - National Gallery. 2013
Constable Gainsborough Turner and the Making of Landscape. RA 2012

Drawing Sculpture. Drawing Room.  Bermondsey, London: 14 Feb – 6 April. 2013
Duchamp - The Bride and the Bachelors. Duchamp with Cage, Cunningham, Rauschenberg and Johns. Barbican 2013

Ellen Gallagher. AxME. Tate Modern 2013
Goya prints at British Museum 2012

Light Show – Hayward Gallery. London. 2013
Mall Galleries, Memory & Imagination, Dutch Italianate and Contemporary Landscapes. London: Mall Galleries 2013. 

Mike Nelson - The Coral Reef. Tate Britain
Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel. Christopher green, Barnaby Wright, The Courtauld Gallery.
Exhibition 16 Feb-20th May 2012. London.

Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel. The Courtauld Gallery. 16 Feb-20 - May 2012. London
National Gallery - Looking for distance. 2013

Schwitters in Britain. Tate Britain. 2013
Simon Starling – Phantom Ride. Tate Britain, 2013 May

The Genius of J.W. Turner. Watched 29.4.13 BBC Revolution - Industry/technology
Walk On: 40 Years of Art Walking. Pitzhanger Manor Gallery. Ealing 27 March – 5 May 2013

We meet walking artist Simon Pope, we cross the park and chat without really noticing any scenery. He escorted us out of the park as his contribution in 'Walk On'. We re-enter and admire the blossom and trees on the way back, then sit at the kiosk, eat ice cream and people watch.
Witnessing the Wilderness. Wimbledon Space. 2013

 Note 2-Marcel Duchamp, Notes. Arranged and translated by Paul Matisse, G.K. Hall, Boston, 1983.

Infrathin in notes, (green box 1934?) subtle, sensorial experiences

Immeasurable gap between two things as they transition each other

Magnifying glass for touching infrathin.

The warmth of a seat (that had just been vacated) is infrathin.

When the fumes of tobacco also smell of the mouth that exhales it, the two odors co-mingle by way of infrathin.

2 forms cast in the same mold (?) differ from each other by infra thin separable amount.

The condensation or moisture on polished surfaces (glass, copper) is infrathin.

(Duchamp 1980 (n. 32r, 4, 11v, 35, 36) pp. 21-36)

Note 12-My interpretation of distance in Pigott, Jan. (1993) Turner’s Vignettes. London. Tate Gallery
Looking through the images I notice Turner achieves distance by applying perspective rules as if drawing the inside of a room. Clever manipulation of hills, trees, rock etc draws the viewers eye into the distance, the viewpoint in an interior does not collide on a horizon but often somewhere vague. I propose that Turner uses this to his advantage and does not interrupt distance with an horizon line. But this is another essay.

Note 14-The rules of Haiku.
Lowenstein, Tom, editor, (2007).  Classic Haiku The rules of Haiku. London: Duncan Baird Publishers p.15 Haiku consists of 17 syllables, made up of 3 phrases of five, seven and five syllables within this format, the Haiku was divided also into two parts standing in contrast or reversal to each other.

Note 15-An excerpt from Kiefer’s diary 18 years old writing on how captivated he is with the horizon on a visit to the seashore.
‘This absolutely straight unending line, which makes no concessions, and which runs as far as the sea runs. Everything orients itself according to this line, we determine the elevation of the land. It is objectively always the same. What would it be like travelling on a boat on the ocean and seeing this line all around one wherever one looks? It is therefore also nothingness. But not the nothingness of Heidegger, which he particularly crosses out, but rather the existing nothingness. For this line is in reality no line, but rather movement, because there, where we see the line, the waves rule also, and the sea is as much in motion there as here. Alone the endless distance transforms the movement into line’. p.7

Biro, Mathew. (1998) Anselm Kiefer and the Philosophy of Martin Heidegger. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press
Note 39-Art Movements - Theosophy

In 1908 Mondrian began to study the theosophical movement, guided by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Mondrian's interest in spirituality remained an important factor throughout his life and career
Theosophy and De Stijl 25.6.13
Mondrian was a member of the Dutch Theosophical Society from 1909 and kept a picture of Madame Blavatsky in his studio. Nelly van Doesburg has confirmed that was so even as late as 1921.
Mondrian referred to theosophy as "another expression of the same spiritual movement
which we represent at present in painting".

Note 53-Nelson, Mike, ‘The Coral Reef’ exhibition at Tate Britain London November 2011
On entering the Tate Gallery I notice a large section that looks as if it is closed for re-hanging, I try to find the entrance to Mike Nelson’s Coral Reef and look for the usual white space. A gallery attendant points to the scruffy and insignificant door. There are no signs, no indication of what might be inside.

It looks like an abandoned Taxi cab office. Through the next door, another neglected space and down this grubby corridor more rooms with signs of a shady past, or waiting areas for something unpleasant. I tread carefully in the dim lighting, past old worn couches, random light fittings, and assorted objects left behind after a quick exit. These objects are familiar, reference past fears and are disturbing. There is a variety of office seating and a used mattress possibly taken from a skip?  I had a couch just like that in a bedsit but had to cover it in flea powder before sitting on it. Everything has had a previous use and the feeling of hopelessness builds. I carry on past grimy carpets and temporary floor surfaces, these abandoned spaces continue to imply unease, what lies beneath the layers of old newspaper on the floor? More doors; do I want to continue on or return?

This is hard work, most exhibitions usually have a preferred route, mapping the way through from beginning to end. You know how to navigate it even if you prefer to make your own way around. At least you can be sure not to miss the good bits.
Ah I think I've been here before but now choose another door. I pass one or two people and can hear footsteps elsewhere and distant door hinges squeaking, so many small, hostile rooms seem to interconnect endlessly.

Which way next errm...

Ah here’s an attendant or is he a security guard, is he part of this … I ask, he is not.

Round a corner and through more small unpleasant spaces, (It’s quite creative how many ways you can make a room look sordid) I have seen these places before in films, bad dreams and reality, only this time it is the artist controlling my time in here. Have I been in this room before...

It’s quiet no other sounds, footsteps or squeaking doors ... it’s very quiet... it would be funny if I couldn't find the way out... I feel uncomfortable... why haven’t I bothered to notice the direction I came in... How did I get to this bit...  I acknowledge a slight unease... where was that security bloke?

Searching for the way back I find more rooms I don’t recognise and there are no signs that might help my disorientation. It’s so quiet now, where has everyone gone? I wish I was with someone in here... I wonder what would happen if I had a panic attack... err, don't know if I ever actually had a real one... don’t know how I would react if... and now with this thought I do start to feel very scared. I don't know how I would be if I lost control?

"We do not have to be long in the woods to experience the always rather anxious impression of going deeper and deeper’ into a limitless world. Soon, if we do not know where we are going, we no longer know where we are". Gaston Bachelard – The Poetics of space

Is there a door handle that might be an exit, are the fire exit signs real, if I follow them where will I end up? Every thought makes things worse, my heart is pounding and my stomach churns as the real fear of losing control gets closer, try this door, another room, another room, another room...

Here is the reception and the security bloke, I try to calmly ask “ How do I get out?”
“Straight ahead and through the door.”
This corridor is not straight and the door opens into a sort of bin storage area, do I go through the fire exit over there and possibly into a back street. It doesn't look right. I have to go back but at least I remember how I got here this time. “Yes trust me” he says encouragingly. So back into the bin room I spot a bright sliver of light under the door.

Now out in the familiar Tate corridor I remember my intention was to make a drawing in there, so feeling brave now, I almost liked the idea of being lost inside. I step back in and note each door as I walk through but after the fourth door I have had enough fear returns and I quickly retrace my steps. The attendant outside looked indifferent as I re-emerged so quickly.
I realise how easily I had ignored the fire exit signs when looking for a way out, probably because they are accepted information and never an actual part of the art?

The fear of being lost in there completely transformed my experience of an art exhibition and memories of Tate Britain. Now back to the shop!
Connections cut from essay

Nick Franglen Musician producer artist explains:
Hive is an investigation into and comment on how we deal with the increasing torrent of information with which we are confronted, and the choices we make in filtering that information.
The immersive surround-sound experiences at Latitude hums with around 60 radios, each one is tuned to a different channel. The cacophony of sounds changes throughout the day as you listen, individual fragments might break out or you focus in more clearly to speech during the news, before the sound mix expands back out again. Almost becoming a demonstration of how the brain filters, locates and connects to the multiple sensations around?

Franglen, Nick. July 2013 'Hive' Latitude festival. England: The Wellcome Trust

Fiona Rae
In the spring copy of Cultural Quarterly Fiona Rae talks about how she embraces the eclectic mix of visual imagery available with today’s immediate access to film clips, symbols and photos from across the globe. She draws on traditional and multi-cultural influences, combined with disassembled parts maybe from a science fiction movie or disintegrating cartoon panda. The paintings include evidence of their history and yet Rae ‘responds to and participates in the culture of our times’. Acknowledging these influences she talks about ‘I Need Gentle Conversations’ oil and acrylic on canvas, 2012:

It seems rather ethereal and a bit like a Chinese landscape painting, with veils of dripping paint and a few wispy brush drawings.
Her paintings maintain their abstract discipline while ambiguity allows them to remain open to interpretation.
Rae, Fiona.(In Spring 2013) Cultural Quarterly P.6


1 Kierkegaard in Macfarlane, Robert. (2012) The Old Ways, A Journey on Foot. London: Penguin p.27
2 Duchamp Marcel. (1983) Notes. (green box 1934)Arranged and translated by Paul Matisse, G.K. Hall: Boston
3 Watkins, Jonathan and Martin, Sarah, (Editors) (2012). Hamish Fulton, Walking in Relation to Everything. Birmingham: Ikon Gallery and Turner Contemporary p.5
4 Tufnell, Ben, and Wilson, Andrew, 2002. Hamish Fulton Walking  Journey. London: Tate Publishing. p.20
5 Tufnell p.27
6 Tufnell p.27
7 Macfarlane, Robert. (2012) The Old Ways, A Journey on Foot. London: Penguin p.25
Quote also in 7.7.2013  
8 Scott, Doug cited in Tufnell (2002) Hamish Fulton walking journey p.34
9 Radio 3 Walking with Attitude.
10 Tufnell p.27
11 Thornbury, Walter. (1970) The life and Correspondence of JMW Turner. London: Ward Lock Reprints p.539/40
12 Pigott, Jan. (1993) Turner’s Vignettes. London. Tate Gallery p.27
13 Hillier, J.R. (1965) Drawings of the Masters, Japanese Drawings from the 17th through the 19th Century. New York: Shorewood Publishers Inc p.21
14 Lowenstein, Tom. editor (2007) Classic Haiku. The rules of Haiku. London: Duncan Baird Publishers p.15
15 Biro, Mathew. (1998) Anselm Kiefer and the Philosophy of Martin Heidegger. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press p.7
16 Hudson W. H. Afoot in England cited in Macfarlane, Robert. (2012) The Old Ways, A Journey on Foot. p.77
17 Hillier p.16
18 ‘Witnessing the Wilderness’  Exhibition at Wimbledon Space. (2013)
19 Dan Hays speaking at Witnessing the Wilderness seminar
20 Remote area warning sign on Skye – You are entering remote, sparsely populated potentially dangerous mountain country. Please ensure that you are adequately experienced and equipped to complete your journey without assistance. Camping at Glen Brittle on the Isle of Skye
21 Witnessing the Wilderness handout
22 Rawson, Philip. (1969) Drawing the Appreciation of the Arts. London: Oxford University Press p.8
23 Radio 3 Walking with Attitude. Viewed 7.7.2013
26 Rousseau p.82 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, (1762)The Project Gutenberg eBook of Emile viewed 7.7.2013
27 Rousseau p.82
32 Koepplin, Dietier. (1988) Joseph Beuys. The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland. Schirmer Mosel p.48
33 Joyce, James 1992) edition (Portrait of the Artist as a young Man. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions P.vii
34 Joyce p.128
35 Joyce p.108
36 Sharma, Simon. (1995) Landscape and memory. Landscape as a work of the mind. New York: Vintage Books. p.540
37 Schama p.531
38 Milner, John. (1992) Mondrian. New York: Phaidon Press Ltd p.125
39 viewed 25.6.13 Theosophical Society member 1909
40 Malevich, Kazimir, Booklet viewed 12.02.2013
41 Malevich booklet maria buszek
42 Berger p.143  
43 Berger p.143
44 Collister, Rob. (2005) Ty Hyll, The Ugly House, guidebook. Wales: Snowdonia Society p.5 
46 Macfarlane p.33
47 Biro Mathew. (1998) Anselm Kiefer and the Philosophy of Martin Heidegger. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p.4
48 Biro, p.5
49 Anselm Kiefer. Spiritual Heroes-1973 in Biro p.34
50 Biro p.37
51 Cardiff, Janet and Miller, Georges Bures (2005) The Walk Book and CD. At Walk On: 40 Years of Art Walking. Pitzhanger Manor Gallery. Ealing
52 Bruce Nauman Six Inches of My Knee Extended to Six Feet. Butler, Cornelia H. (1999) Afterimage: drawing through process The Mitt Press: Massachusetts p.83
53 Nelson, Mike, Coral Reef - Installation at Tate Britain,
54 Anna Barriball Untitled II 2008- ink on paper - Lovatt, Anna. (2012) Drawing Sculpture. London: Drawing Room p.4
55 Withers, Rachel. A Storyteller’s Map: Six Signposts (after Benjamin) found on Melanie Jackson
56 Macfarlane, Robert. (2012) The Old Ways, A Journey on Foot. London: Penguin P.26

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