Connections through Landscape Paper 2 - 3000 words

  
Unit 2 2013



Connections through landscape





Fig 1 Worms Head Photo P.J. Evans

Introduction

Pathways exist through time and purpose, evolving slowly with the walker’s rhythm and movement.

I wander, progress, uncover, connect and navigate – walking, noticing, thinking. I notice a well-worn spot on Worms Head; it is here a small herd of wandering sheep return to each evening, their leader sits on this chosen mound as the sun sinks, looking out across the landscape and enjoying a spectacular Arcadian view.

I looked at how we depend on our responses to the landscape view in Unit One - Drawing the Gap. The understanding of landscape aesthetics is an important phenomenon of our environmental perception. Recognition has no words it is wired straight to brain hot spots enabling us to recognise and respond immediately to our observations; neural pathways are created through practise, experience, and knowledge.

In this essay I aim to wend my way along examining the relationship between observation, place, response and drawing, collecting relevant facts, exploring significant details and making connections along the way.

Drawing communicates without words through the differing elements and qualities it contains, if unfinished or all inconsequential details are removed there remains a visual understanding. Accessed by way of referral, this visual recognition is found from past experiences.

Seeing and observing are experiences of the present moment that remain with the viewer, becoming part of any future recognition and continually increasing fluidity in relation to place. This way we can acknowledge the glimpse, its apparent smudginess of residual marks express meaning and our brains complete the information.

I search for differences as I draw; differences between qualities that can allow recognition; I observe and describe, maintaining visual directness that relates to visceral touch and communicating content over appearance.

In an open or abstract work these observations retain their position to the physical world while untying their reference to nature.



Walking and drawing

Walking along a path, differing views come into focus as my eye travels around. I walk, I look, I stop, but remain standing to maintain the physical energy of this spontaneous interpretation. It is important to make a quick notation, to record the event but not to get too comfortable with the scene, allowing awkwardness to remain visible in the drawing. I scan, turning my head to locate and understand any aspects that motivated my decision to draw here.

A pause actuated by structure and space or physicality of angle, slope, drop, gravity, distance, vast or enclosed or minor aspect that catches my attention and instigates the drawing. I intentionally reject the single perspective viewpoint, seen as if looking through a window or at a photograph. It is not a scene as if reflected in a ‘Claude Glass’, time and distance are acknowledged.

Claude Lorraine painted nature and mankind in harmony, scenes of eternal summer that dream of pastoral peace and provides an escape from threat or the turbulent reality.1

FIG 2 Landscape scenes in pen and wash attributed to Claude Lorraine 1600-1682


The Claude Glass drawing technique made it easier for other artists to achieve this romantic idyll. It is a slightly convex tinted mirror, 'they give the object of nature a soft, mellow tinge like the colouring of that Master', amateur artist, Reverend William Gilpin explained. Tonal values of a view were reduced by the tint and a neat scene was framed in the convex mirror. Tourists often just wanted to view the scenery via the mirror to give the real live view an effective and pleasing 'mellow tinge'.
FIG 4 Claude Glass manufactured in England, 18th Century
   

FIG 3 From the bank of a river,
watercolour by Reverend
William Gilpin 1724-1804


Joseph Mallord William Turner was inspired by the popular landscape paintings of Claude Lorraine with their subtle variations of tone but avoided directly representing every detail he saw, preferring to work from his experience of being in nature. He made walking tours throughout his life, hoarding his sketches, considering them essential aids in recalling ‘every aspect of his experience’.2

FIG 5 Joseph Mallord William Turner, Hindhead Hill 1811, view of Gibbet Hill



Looking


FIG 6 Sailor Stone Hindhead -  photo Jill Evans 2012


Wandering along the newly made pathway at Hindhead I pause to look out at the view and sit on a tree stump in front of the ‘Sailor’s Stone’3; my eye is drawn around the curve of Devils Punchbowl. Here the new A3 tunnel has returned this natural space back to Turner’s pastoral idyll.

This drawing requires more time to investigate the massive space.


FIG 7 Devils cauldron view from Gibbet Hill, Hindhead
Jill Evans 2012



Our eyes become the centre of the world when we apply rules of perspective says Juhani Pallasmaa.4 According to Greek philosophers who believed in the dominance of vision, it classifies, organises and orders visual information. Plato saw vision as our greatest gift and asserted that universal truths should be seen through the mind’s eye. We see this now in the use of many Greek ocular metaphors for intellect in everyday language, enlightening us with clear vision and insight.

Through visual examination the eye can assess and understand what it sees even at a distance and even more intriguingly it sees itself seeing, no wonder the Renaissance classed sight top in their hierarchy of senses.5




FIG 8 Druids Grove Ancient Yew Tree - photo P.J. Evans


Druids

On my way past the bedroom radio, Melvyn Bragg’s words grabbed my attention; ‘… because the druids were an oral culture they left no written records of their own …’;6 Druids believed philosophical thought should be stored in the mind. A trained memory was understood to be vital for intelligence, distrusting the written word, considering it a lazy method of communication and open to misinterpretation.

These powerful figures, the intellectual elite who spoke Latin, were highly organised motivators and keepers of culture; they read nature and the sciences through observation alone. Nature spoke directly to the Druids, an original eco community who control knowledge of time and the science of plants and healing; but their deeper traditions of oral language became obscured by the written word and the dominance of Christianity.

FIG 9 Piccadilly Circus Circus 2012


Randomly walking through Piccadilly I noticed an unusual feeling of quiet emptiness, no cars, closed roads and high zipwires connecting buildings. A feeling of expectation built in the twilight. Angels appeared overhead and the space around Eros filled with feathers, I was standing in the centre of this familiar but now crowded place experiencing the strangest sensations of thick, warm, drifting, snow.

In The Eyes of the Skin the author Juhani Pallasmaa discusses this shift away from a primordial oral culture and how it neglects our unconscious relationship and response to space, ‘Vision separates us from the world whereas the other senses unite us with it’.7 He continues that our encounters with place and our ‘being-in-the-world’8 is how many artists express observations through an engagement with pre-verbal meanings.

Pallasmaa quotes Maurice Merleau-Ponty describing his ‘osmotic relation between the self and the world’9. ‘I perceive in a total way with my whole being: I grasp a unique structure of the thing, a unique way of being, which speaks to all my senses at once’.10

Yve-Alain Bois quoted in Iconoclast ‘One must learn to ‘visualise clearly’ to see only the relations that link things together and to the world as a whole, so as, eventually, “to recreate” abstractly the same type of relations’ 11
FIG 10 Dune 1 1909 Oil on canvas


Mondrian Pier and Ocean

The artist Piet Mondrian concerned with the relationship of perception, space rhythm and movement worked on a series of drawings in Domberg while in isolation during the war 1914 and 1915, where his ideas were in transition during this period.12

He studied the movement of ocean on the shore with its eternal and rhythmic balance, five years earlier in 1909-10. Here his Dune paintings; empty of all signs of man, flowed uninterrupted horizontally across and off the sides of the canvas; the movement appearing endless and eternal without signs of human presence. The high central area of focus and symmetry of brush strokes implies ‘a vanishing point to evoke the enormous space of the sea and sky’ writes John Milner Mondrian 1992.13 Mondrian worked continuously observing the shifting mass of sea or shore, always searching for simpler ways to explain the visual rhythms that concern him and remaining interested in what these observation could reveal about the real world and painting.14

He further simplified the motion and rhythm of the sea, in summer 1912, when briefly in Domberg again, this time removing the stabilizing effect of the foreground.

FIG 11 The Sea 1912 oil on canvas

Here the structure with the horizon at rest is without any opposition but as he continually returns to observe the sea at Domberg, he develops the Pier and Ocean drawings with a new awareness. In emphasising the intensity of vertical lines the horizontal becomes accentuated and Mondrian achieves an absolute equilibrium.15

FIG 12 Pier and Ocean 3 1914 Charcoal on paper



Mondrian continued to explore methods of composition in his Pier and Ocean drawings in 1914. According to Milner several elements could be explained by current thinking at the time. He describes how the oval or the square divided by a cross could be associated with Theosophist symbolism or Cubism; the ellipse can be read as a circle in perspective; the spacing of horizontal lines indicate distance; the foreground is moving towards the viewer as the central pier structure is shown cleverly retreating back into the sea. However, all of these close observations are also discovered through immense concentration by Mondrian directly at the scene.16

He reworked the ‘ocean’ series of drawings of ’a rolling sea with a very high horizon’ 17 many times as he continued to search for visual balance. Mies Elout-Drabble watched him work over a small sketch for many days:

“On a walk beside the ocean, late evening, under a radiant, starry sky, he took a tiny sketchbook out of his pocket and made a scribbled drawing of a starry night” describes Mies Elout-Drabble. 18

Mondrian was an observer of life says John Milner in his introduction, driven ‘to discern an underlying structure in the world and to indicate this, as a mathematician might by means of the fewest, clearest elements available’.19 Working from what he sees, his experiences of what he is surrounded by; he makes visible in the painting for the viewer to experience.

‘Observing sea, sky and stars, I sought to indicate their plastic function through a multiplicity of crossing verticals and horizontals’ quoted J. Joosten in Abstraction and compositional Innovation, he continues ‘...impressed by the vastness of nature, I was trying to express its expansion rest and unity’.20

The many small lines and crossings create a visual rhythm where neither the horizontal or vertical lines dominate. The image itself is totally flat, loosening at the edges but held in place by a visual tension across the surface. The opposition of lines create continual movement as your eye wanders around they appear to shift and flow; to swell and expand; into a massive space. The line no longer depicts something else; symbolism or art technique; image and structure have become equal, ‘visually the work shifts and pulsates before the eye like a living organism. It breathes’. 21


FIG 13 Composition 10 in Black and White 1915 Oil on Canvas


Mondrian considered Composition 10 in Black and White, an important painting,22 recreating in the mind of the viewer, a vast and peaceful space that gently swells with the rhythm of the tides.

Space and place

Mondrian created his paintings from intense observation and direct experiences of his surroundings throughout his life. His drawings and paintings provide those experiences for each individual viewer via their own specific and identifiable references to place.

I watch ‘Time Team’ walking the Ridgeway on the Jurassic coast, looking for a clearer understanding of the realities of early life here. They walk, think, feel the experience of living on the Ridgeway; using a method not normally addressed by traditional archaeologists. Phenomenological archaeological fieldwork examines the sensory experience of landscape and is concerned with the past everyday experience of living in a domestic context. Sue Hamilton explains that Phenomenology could be considered `subjective' and `unscientific' but ‘our particular approach might be used to further understandings of past lives’. 23

In Space and Place Yi-Fi Tuan questions the ‘experiential perspective’ and the ‘nature of experience’.24 We gain the ability to identify and recognise a place through mental and physical experience of being there, attaching individual meaning or creating shared cultural traits. Studying a place indirectly creates a more ambiguous understanding but can still have significance and acquire stability in their mind enabling a response.

The idea of ‘space is more abstract than place’ 25, undifferentiated space accesses thoughts of openness, freedom, and the possibility of threat.
Knowledge and experience creates place ‘if we think of space as that which allows movement, then place is pause; each pause in movement makes it possible for location to be transformed into place’
.26

Vast 

The word ‘vast’ replaces any specific space but retains the physical experience of it; ‘vast’ describes a mind image, attaching references of knowledge, culture and recognition of experiences. A visually impaired reader also recalls their response because according to Baudelaire vast evokes all imagined properties at once and contains all reference of experience for an immediate connection.27 In my early years only close detail explained what I saw, undiagnosed severe myopia denied a distant space. Gaston Bachelard has considered Baudelaire’s use of the word ‘vast’ at length in The Poetics of Space 28. Noticing how he uses it frequently to add grandeur in a statement, it ‘contains a complex of images that deepen one another’.29 or used like a breath to give infinite calm in the reader’s thoughts. ‘Vast’ can create a pause in the text.

Here and There

This notion of vastness, the vastness of an ocean or space is perceived as a whole and not seen directly. Linked to our memory of auditory space and freedom of movement; our senses expand and enlarge spatial awareness allowing an endless expanse of space, implying distance. Location, direction, distance relate to man, gaining importance through their accessibility. As I look ‘out there’ 30 a distance is introduced, I am here, they, are over there, this is here and ‘that’ in conversation indicates a remote topic. We judge distance in relation to ourselves, learning how far is a stone’s throw, or in shouting distance and the length of time a day’s journey takes?

Walking from A-B contains both past and future, each step is directional but the future goal also gives time a direction, it looks ahead.


FIG 14 Cader Idris Photo P.J. Evans


Slowly walking up Cader Idris, an American dad and his children comes striding past, chanting a US Marine song, we follow along, surprised at how much easier it makes getting to the top. The rhythmic sounds can negate our awareness of time and effort as the body movement synchronises with the sound, ‘cancelling a sense of purposeful action‘31 and location loses its relevance, here to there time becomes hidden in the rhythm.

Serra drawing space and the body

The experience of walking and looking transformed the sculpture and drawings of Richard Serra. A visit to the Japanese Zen gardens in Kyoto, 1970 connected with his thoughts on sculpture and reinforced his understanding and concerns of space and the body. Here he discovered the fluid design, lacking a fixed vantage point altered the way the viewer gathered visual information while moving through the pathways. This constantly changing and temporal vision is understood as being peripatetic in Zen Gardens; they are not expected to be seen traditionally as a single framed scene.

As in his sculptures Serra requires his drawings to shift a viewer’s physical and visual perception of the space they inhabit, making their presence felt, in the ‘here and now’.32 These large drawings do not represent another place but are made using a non-referential language, they speak for themselves.

Making, thinking and looking explains Serra’s process of drawing, concerned with a sense of how space functions; he explores a physical tension between parts. An awareness of gravity remains evident in the weight of suspended forms pushed together. The light absorbing pigment and black grainy texture emphasises their density and connects them to the space where the direct experience and material richness of the drawings develop their own importance. ‘blackness is a property not a quality’.33

In his large round drawings Serra is exploring a sense of touch, exposing the imperfections of a moving arm, residue remains as form and matter. Negating the pictorial traditions of representation, the contemporary dialogue between figure and ground is eliminated and pushes the drawing into actual space; like wallpaper it becomes about the space it inhabits.


FIG 15 Installation view Richard Serra Drawing: A retrospective, 2011. Courtesy of SFMOMA
Photo: Ian Reeves



FIG 16 Serra’s out of round 1999, Paintstick on Hiromi paper


Fluidity

On entering The Courtauld Gallery to see the exhibition, Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel; I notice a group of singers quietly setting up in corners throughout the exhibition, preparing for a one off performance. I’m handed a flyer, Extraordinary Voices Experimental vocal music by John Cage and Christopher Fox, I wonder how the sounds will affect the space between the paintings of the two friends? As the gallery fills with unusual sound and I quietly wind my way through the crowd, musical rhythms emphasise differences in my response to the two painters.
FIG 17 Ben Nicholson untitled 1937 Oil on canvas



Nicholson has set up a calm space, my eye flows around the surface with gentle interruptions of depth or colour that radiates outwards, towards the centre or in circular movement.


FIG 18 Piet Mondrian Composition with Yellow and Blue 1932 Oil on canvas



Mondrian’s flat surfaces appear to possess movement contained as a rhythm within the whole. Christopher Green describes this in the exhibition catalogue as ‘The pulse of movement experienced not in space but in time’.34 Mondrian opens up the centre of the painting by shifting colour towards the edges and threatening stability. Yves-Alain Bois in The Iconoclast sees this as ‘always on the point of being “undone” even when finished’.35

Both artists were concerned with the idea of painting as a flat art and the viewer’s responses to surface and rhythm. In Mondrian’s paintings forms and colours have different dimensions and positions but as they are all equal in value, colour plane, non-colour plane, vertical and horizontal line; they compete on the flat surface and no one force is allowed to dominate.36




FIG 19 Victory Boogie Woogie (unfinished) 1942-1944 Oil and paper on canvas



Conclusion  

I have rambled along making good progress, looking, noticing, thinking and uncovering interesting connections from artists and writers.

Investigating place and memory I noticed how Mondrian’s ability to ‘visualise clearly’ connects his earlier work on Pier and Ocean to his unfinished painting as a consequence of his intense observation throughout his lifetime. ‘One must learn to see only the relations that link things together and to the world as a whole, so as, eventually, “to recreate” abstractly the same type of relations’.37

Towards the end of his life Mondrian returned to New York, influenced by this move to the city his work continued to transform as he struggled to abolish the line as form. In 1942 he started his last painting Victory Boogie Woogie, and still dissatisfied, he states, ‘but even about this picture I am not quite satisfied. There is still too much of the old in it’.38 When asked by his friend Carl Holty why he often destroyed everything from the night before, Mondrian revealed his lifelong motivation ‘I don’t want pictures. I just want to find things out.’ 39

Mondrian’s ‘abstract-real’ 40 paintings are a result of sensory stimuli encoded in the artist’s memory. In drawing; marks or gesture evoke recognition, connecting to a viewer’s individual sensory recall, enabling discovery and explanation of properties, volume, mark, surface, rhythm … space or object; all inform the viewer of its position to the world.





FIG 20 Contained landscape with curved horizon 2012 Jill Evans


As we navigate our world throughout our everyday experiences, we notice and unconsciously store a residue of differences, differences that consist of the smallest molecule of information. This residue of differences; my rationale (to expose through drawing); is activated in the viewer, connecting thoughts, allowing recollection, uncovering ideas that create understanding and meaning in art ­- traditional, abstract or conceptual.





Notes

1.      Helen Langdon, Claude Lorraine, Guild publishing London 1989. p.9

2.      In Turner’s Footsteps, Through the hills and dales of Northern England David Hill 1984 Guild publishers Ltd London p.12 - found book in Oxfam

3.      Sailor Stone, National trust viewed 29/12/12
http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/history/view-page/item633510/253985/
In 1786 a sailor was brutally murdered by three men which he had befriended (in a local pub in Thursley) whilst walking from London to the docks in Portsmouth. Soon after the murder a stone was erected to mark the spot where the poor sailor met his death.
The bodies of three men were hung on Gibbet hill.

4.      Juhani Pallasmaa 2005. The Eyes of the Skin p.16

5.      Pallasmaa 2005 p.15 - 16

6.      Druids BBC Radio 4 20.9.2012 Melvyn Bragg

7.      Pallasmaa 2005 p.25

8.      Pallasmaa 2005 p.26

9.      Pallasmaa 2005 p.20-21

10.   Pallasmaa 2005 p.20-21

11.   Yve-Alain Bois, The Iconoclast in Yve-Alain Bois and Joop Joosten, 1994.
Piet Mondrian. New York: Bulfinch Press p.318

12.   Mondrian, John Milner 1992 Phaidon Press Ltd p.118

13.   Milner 1992 p.72

14.   Milner 1992 p.71-80

15.   Bois and Joosten 1994 p.338

16.   Bois and Joosten 1994 p.125

17.   Bois and Joosten 1994 p.167

18.   Bois and Joosten 1994 p.162

19.   Milner 1992 p.6-7

20.   Milner 1992 p.120 quote in Joosten Abstraction and compositional Innovation, Artforum, Apr. 1973 p.55

21.   Milner 1992 p.125

22.   Bois and Joosten 1994 p.169

23.   Sue Hamilton 2006. Phenomenology in Practice: Towards a Methodology for a ‘Subjective’ Approach. London: University College.

24.   Tuan, Yi-Fi, 1977. Space and Place. Minneapolis and London:
University of Minnesota Press p.7

25.   Tuan 1977 p.6

26.   Tuan 1977 p.6

27.   Bachelard, Gaston, 1958. The Poetics Of Space. Edition 1994. Boston Massachusetts: Beacon Press. Foreward by John R. Stilgoe. p.196

28.   Bachelard 1958 in chapter 8

29.   Bachelard 1958 p.193

30.   Tuan 1977 p.47

31.   Tuan 1977 p.128

32.   Rose, Bernice and White, Michelle, and Garrels, Gary, 2011, Richard Serra Drawing a Retrospective (Menil Collection) New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p.14

33.   Rose and White 2011 p.24 quoted in Borden About Drawing an interview, p.77

34.   Green, Christopher, and Wright, Barnaby, 2012. Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel. London: Courtauld Gallery p.31

35.   Bois and Joosten 1994 p.339

36.   Green and Wright 2012 p.20

37.   Bois and Joosten 1994 quoted in The Iconoclast p.318

38.   Bois and Joosten 1994 p.293

39.   Bois and Joosten 1994 quoted in The Iconoclast p.316

40.   Bois and Joosten 1994 quoted in The Iconoclast p.318

Images

FIG I Worms Head Fig 1 Worms Head Photo P.J. Evans 2009

FIG 2 Landscape scenes in pen and wash attributed to Claude Lorraine 1600-1682 http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/d/drawing-techniques-claude-glass

FIG 3 From the bank of a river,
watercolour by Reverend
William Gilpin1724-1804 Victoria and Albert Museum http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/d/drawing-techniques-claude-glass

FIG 4 Claude Glass manufactured in England, 18th Century Victoria and Albert Museum http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/d/drawing-techniques-claude-glass

FIG 5 Joseph Mallord William Turner, Hindhead Hill 1811, view of Gibbet Hill. Tate Gallery http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/turner-hindhead-hill-a00960

FIG 6 Sailor Stone Hindhead - photo Jill Evans 2012

FIG 7 Devils cauldron view from Gibbet Hill, Hindhead Jill Evans 2012

FIG 8 Druids Grove Ancient Yew Tree - photo P.J. Evans 2012

FIG 9 Piccadilly Circus Circus – photo http://www.demotix.com 2012

FIG Dune 10 1909 Oil on canvas p.74, Milner, John, 1992. Mondrian. New York: Phaidon Press Ltd.

FIG 11 The Sea 1912 oil on canvas p.123, Yve-Alain, and Joosten, Joop, 1994. Piet Mondrian. New York: Bulfinch Press.  

FIG 12 Pier and Ocean 3 1914 Charcoal on paper p.163, Yve-Alain, and Joosten, Joop, 1994. Piet Mondrian. New York: Bulfinch Press.  

FIG 13 Composition 10 in Black and White 1915 Oil on Canvas p.169, Yve-Alain, and Joosten, Joop, 1994. Piet Mondrian. New York: Bulfinch Press.  

FIG 14 Cader Idris Photo P.J. Evans 2010

FIG 15 Installation view Richard Serra Drawing: A retrospective, 2011. Courtesy of SFMOMA
Photo: Ian Reeves
http://www.artpractical.com/review/richard_serra_drawing_ viewed 29/12/12

FIG 16 Serra’s out of round 1999, Paintstick on Hiromi paper http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions

FIG 17 Ben Nicholson untitled 1937 Oil on canvas p.131, Green, Christopher, and Wright, Barnaby, 2012. Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel. London: Courtauld Gallery.

FIG 18 Piet Mondrian Composition with Yellow and Blue 1932 Oil on canvas p.93, Green, Christopher, and Wright, Barnaby, 2012. Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel. London: Courtauld Gallery.

FIG 19 Victory Boogie Woogie (unfinished) 1942-1944 Oil and paper on canvas p.296, Yve-Alain, and Joosten, Joop, 1994. Piet Mondrian. New York: Bulfinch Press.  

FIG 20 Contained landscape with curved horizon 2012 Jill Evans Ink on Paper cups.


Bibliography 

Bachelard, Gaston, 1958. The Poetics Of Space. Edition 1994. Boston Massachusetts: Beacon Press. Foreward by John R. Stilgoe.

Bois, Yve-Alain, and Joosten, Joop, 1994. Piet Mondrian. New York: Bulfinch Press. 

Bois, Yve-Alain, in The Iconoclast.  p.318 in Bois, Yve-Alain, and Joosten, Joop, 1994. Piet Mondrian. New York: Bulfinch Press.

Bragg, Melvin, 2012. In our Time - The Druids. London: BBC Radio 4 20.9.2012

Causey, Andrew, 1973. Paul Nash’s Photographs Document and Image.
London: Tate Gallery.

Causey, Andrew, and Eates, Margot, 1975. Paul Nash. London: Tate Gallery.

Christopher green, Barnaby Wright, The Courtauld Gallery.
Exhibition 16 Feb-20th May 2012. London. Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel. Yves-Alain Bois ‘always on the point of being “undone” even when finished in The Iconoclast in Bois, Joosten, and Rudenstein, and Janssen,1995. p.339

Deakin, Roger, 2008. Wildwood, A Journey Through Trees. London: Penguin Books.

Derrida, Jacques

Eco, Umberto, 1989. The Open work. Uk: difference and meaning - BA Thesis

Green, Christopher, and Wright, Barnaby, 2012. Mondrian and Nicholson in Parallel. London: Courtauld Gallery.

Grieve, Alastair, 1992. Robert Adams 1917-1984 A Sculptor’s Record.
London: Tate Gallery.  

Hamilton, Sue, 2006. Phenomenology in Practice: Towards a Methodology for a ‘Subjective’ Approach. London: University College.

Hawkins, Stephen, 2012. Speech at the Paralympics opening ceremony – “Look up at the stars and not down at your feet, try to make sense of what you see, wonder about what makes the universe exist. Be curious”.

Johnson, Una E, 1965. 20th Century Drawings from 1940 to the Present Day.
London: Shorewood Publishers.

Keiller, Patrick, 2012. The Possibility of Life’s Survival on the Planet.
London: Tate Publishing. The Robinson Institute@Tate Britain

Lewison, Jeremy, 1982. Circle : Constructive art in Britain 1934-40.
Exhibition Catalogue. Cambridge: Kettle’s Yard Gallery

Malevitch Kazimir Geometrical Abstract Art/ Cubism and Abstract Art MOMA exhibition

Milner, John, 1992. Mondrian. New York: Phaidon Press Ltd.

Nicholson, Ben, Circle: International Survey of Constructive Art.

Pallasmaa, Juhani. 2005. The Eyes of the Skin Architecture and the Senses. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and sons Ltd.

Pascale, Mark, 2011. Contemporary drawings from The Irving Stenn JR. Collection. Chicago Illinois: The Art Institute of Chicago.

R3, Friday 30th Nov 2012. Agricolous Piers Hellawell, classic music written from looking at David Smith paintings modular structures/units and line. Commissioned by Robert Plane 2008/Ulster orchestra

Rose, Bernice and White, Michelle, and Garrels, Gary, 2011, Richard Serra Drawing a Retrospective (Menil Collection) New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Sailor Stone, National trust viewed 29/12/12
http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/history/view-page/item633510/253985/
In 1786 a sailor was brutally murdered by three men which he had befriended (in a local pub in Thursley) whilst walking from London to the docks in Portsmouth. 

Soon after the murder a stone was erected to mark the spot where the poor sailor met his death.

Sharma, Simon, 1995. Landscape and memory.
New York: Vintage Books. Landscape as a work of the mind

Time team, Walking the Jurassic coast. More4 14.12.12

Tuan, Yi-Fi, 1977. Space and Place. Minneapolis and London:
University of Minnesota Press.


Weilacher, Udo, 1996. Between Landscape Architecture and Land Art. Switzerland: Birkhauser.

blog- Wandering through the summer 2012





No comments:

Post a comment